View definitions of terms used throughout the Pathways Clearinghouse.



A single piece of published or unpublished research, such as a journal article, working paper, book chapter, or research report. Studies might contain multiple manuscripts, and manuscripts might contain multiple studies. See the Protocol for the Pathways to Work Evidence Clearinghouse for more information.

Mixed support

We have some evidence, from impact studies of moderate or high quality, that indicates the intervention improves outcomes in a given outcome domain, and some evidence that indicates it worsens outcomes in that domain. For instance, in the educational attainment domain, an intervention might have unfavorable effects on attainment of a high school diploma, but favorable effects on GED attainment.


The quality of the study is moderate, meaning we can be somewhat confident in the study findings. However, other factors not accounted for in the study might also have contributed to the findings. This applies to findings from random assignment studies that, because of flaws in the study design or analysis (for example, high sample attrition), do not meet the criteria for the high rating but satisfy other design criteria. We also assign the moderate rating to study findings from well-executed QEDs.