View definitions of terms used throughout the Pathways Clearinghouse.

R

Race and ethnicity

The Pathways Clearinghouse follows federal standards for classifying data on race and ethnicity. Reflecting evolving public conceptions of race and ethnicity, federal standards for classifying data on race and ethnicity changed broadly around 2000. Major changes included measuring ethnicity separately from race and revising definitions of some categories. If a study reports race and ethnicity using definitions that differ from the federal standards, we choose the Pathways Clearinghouse classification that best matches the study classification.

  • American Indian or Alaska Native (not Hispanic). A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North or South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. When possible, this classification refers to people who do not identify with Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. However, Pathways Clearinghouse might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification in profiles of some older research.
  • Asian (not Hispanic). A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. When possible, this classification refers to people who do not identify with Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. However, Pathways Clearinghouse might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification in profiles of some older research.
  • Black or African American (not Hispanic). A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. When possible, this classification refers to people who do not identify with Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. However, Pathways Clearinghouse might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification in profiles of some older research.
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (not Hispanic). A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. This classification is not associated with Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
  • Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. This term was replaced in the revised guidance for federal classification of race and ethnicity in 2000, but it is included in Pathways Clearinghouse because it was used in some older studies. Pathways might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification.
  • White, not Hispanic. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. This classification is not associated with Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.
  • White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. This term was replaced in the revised guidance for federal classification of race and ethnicity in 2000, but it is included in Pathways Clearinghouse because it was used in some older studies. Pathways might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification.
  • More than one race (not Hispanic). A person who indicated more than one race category. This classification is not associated with a Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. However, Pathways Clearinghouse might include people who also identify as Hispanic or Latino within this classification in profiles of some older research.
  • Unknown or not reported. A person whose race is not known either because they skipped questions related to race or ethnicity during study data collection or because the study author did not collect or did not report on race and ethnicity for some or all of the study sample. Authors sometimes make the decision not to report race or ethnicity because of confidentiality concerns in cases where only a few members of a study sample identify as members of a particular category. For some older studies, Pathways Clearinghouse aggregates this category with the “another race” category.
  • Another race. A person who indicated a race category other than those reported by the Pathways Clearinghouse. In some cases, a study’s data collection might have included an “other” category. In other cases, study authors might have reported on a race category that did not fall into one of the Pathways Clearinghouse categories. Both scenarios would place persons into this category for race. For some older studies, Pathways Clearinghouse aggregates this category with the “unknown or not reported” category.
  • Hispanic or Latino of any race. A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)

A design in which researchers randomly assign study participants to a group that receives the intervention services or a group that does not. RCTs are considered to produce the strongest possible evidence of effectiveness because random assignment ensures that no systematic differences existed between the study groups before the intervention.